California's Garden Water Fountains Research and Results

California's Garden Water Fountains Research and Results The first US city to implement a tax on high calorie drinks was Berkley, California in February 2014. By taxing sugary drinks, the city hopes to inspire a lot more people to choose healthier options, such as water. Efforts were made to find out the status of neighborhood drinking water fountains in both high- and low-income neighborhoods. By developing a mobile GPS application, specialists were able to amass data on Berkley’s drinking water fountains.California's Garden Water Fountains Research Results 1761771651999.jpg The US Census Community Study database was chosen to collect information pertaining to race and economic status in these locations. By cross-referencing the water fountain sites with the demographic data, they were able to identify whether access to working fountains was class dependent. The study was able to determine the demographics of areas with water fountains, also noting whether the condition of the fountains was better or inferior in lower class neighborhoods. The fact that the fountains were working was not a guarantee that they were well-maintained, considering quite a few were in need of maintenance and repair.

Back Story of Fountains

Back Story of Fountains Pope Nicholas V, himself a well educated man, ruled the Roman Catholic Church from 1397 to 1455 during which time he commissioned many translations of ancient classical Greek documents into Latin. It was important for him to embellish the city of Rome to make it worthy of being known as the capital of the Christian world. In 1453 the Pope commissioned the repairing of the Aqua Vergine, an ancient Roman aqueduct which had carried fresh drinking water into the city from eight miles away. Building a mostra, an imposing commemorative fountain built by ancient Romans to memorialize the entry point of an aqueduct, was a tradition revived by Nicholas V. The Trevi Fountain now occupies the area formerly filled with a wall fountain built by Leon Battista Albert, an architect commissioned by the Pope. The aqueduct he had reconditioned included modifications and extensions which eventually enabled it to supply water to the Trevi Fountain as well as the renowned baroque fountains in the Piazza del Popolo and the Piazza Navona.

Anglo Saxon Landscapes at the Time of the Norman Conquest

Anglo Saxon Landscapes at the Time of the Norman Conquest The Anglo-Saxon way of life was significantly changed by the introduction of the Normans in the later eleventh century. The ability of the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons' in design and agriculture at the time of the conquest. Nonetheless the Normans had to pacify the overall territory before they could focus on home life, domestic architecture, and decoration. Castles were more basic designs and often built on blustery hills, where their people devoted both time and space to exercising offense and defense, while monasteries were considerable stone buildings, commonly located in the widest, most fertile hollows. Gardening, a placid occupation, was impracticable in these fruitless fortifications. Berkeley Castle is possibly the most unchanged model in existence today of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture. The keep is thought to date from the time of William the Conqueror.Anglo Saxon Landscapes Time Norman Conquest 476981068894921491.jpg A massive terrace serves as a deterrent to invaders who would attempt to mine the walls of the building. On one of these parapets is a picturesque bowling green covered in grass and surrounded by an aged hedge of yew that has been designed into coarse battlements.

The Dispersion of Water Fountain Design Innovation

The Dispersion of Water Fountain Design Innovation The published reports and illustrated pamphlets of the day contributed to the development of scientific technology, and were the chief means of transmitting practical hydraulic information and fountain suggestions throughout Europe. In the late 1500's, a French fountain architect (whose name has been lost) was the globally recognized hydraulics innovator. His know-how in developing landscapes and grottoes with integrated and brilliant water attributes began in Italy and with commissions in Brussels, London and Germany. In France, towards the end of his lifetime, he penned “The Principle of Moving Forces”, a book that became the essential text on hydraulic technology and engineering. Classical antiquity hydraulic breakthroughs were elaborated as well as changes to key classical antiquity hydraulic breakthroughs in the book. Archimedes, the creator of the water screw, had his work highlighted and these included a mechanized way to move water. Sunlight heating up liquid in a pair of vessels hidden in a room adjacent to an ornamental water fountain was presented in one illustration. Activating the water fountain is hot water which expands and ascends to seal up the water lines. Garden ponds as well as pumps, water wheels, and water feature creations are talked about in the publication.
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Large Outdoor Fountains As Water Features The movement of water streaming in or through a large feature is what defines of a water feature.The range of goods available run the gamut from uncomplicated suspended wall fountains to intricate courtyard tiered fountains.... read more


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Large Outdoor Fountains Defined A water feature is a big element which has water streaming in or through it.The range of goods available run the gamut from uncomplicated suspended wall fountains to intricate courtyard tiered fountains.... read more


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