Acqua Vergine: The Solution to Rome's Water Troubles

Acqua Vergine: The Solution to Rome's Water Troubles With the manufacturing of the 1st elevated aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, people who lived on the city’s hillsides no longer had to rely only on naturally-occurring spring water for their demands. If citizens living at higher elevations did not have accessibility to springs or the aqueduct, they’d have to be dependent on the other existing solutions of the time, cisterns that collected rainwater from the sky and subterranean wells that drew the water from below ground. Starting in the sixteenth century, a newer method was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean portions to deliver water to Pincian Hill.Acqua Vergine: Solution Rome's Water Troubles 33268269841362273.jpg As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. During the some 9 years he had the property, from 1543 to 1552, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi employed these manholes to take water from the network in buckets, though they were actually built for the function of maintaining and maintenance the aqueduct. He didn’t get an adequate amount water from the cistern that he had constructed on his residential property to gather rainwater. That is when he made the decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran below his residential property.

Archaic Greek Artistry: Garden Statuary

Archaic Greek Artistry: Garden Statuary The primitive Greeks built the first freestanding statuary, an awesome achievement as most sculptures up until then had been reliefs cut into walls and pillars. Kouros figures, statues of young, handsome male or female (kore) Greeks, made up the majority of the statues. Symbolizing beauty to the Greeks, the kouroi were designed to look stiff and always had foot forward; the males were vigorous, sturdy, and nude. Around 650 BC, life-size models of the kouroi began to be seen.Archaic Greek Artistry: Garden Statuary 793512151605468.jpg The Archaic period was an incredible time of transformation for the Greeks as they expanded into new forms of government, formed unique expressions of art, and attained information of the people and cultures outside of Greece. Wars like The Arcadian wars, the Spartan invasion of Samos, and other wars between city-states are suggestive of the tumultuous nature of the time period, which was similar to other periods of historical disturbance. However, these conflicts did not significantly hinder the advancement of the Greek civilization.

Where did Garden Water Fountains Begin?

Where did Garden Water Fountains Begin? A water fountain is an architectural piece that pours water into a basin or jets it high into the air in order to provide drinkable water, as well as for decorative purposes.

The main purpose of a fountain was originally strictly functional.Garden Water Fountains Begin? 888974995143978200.jpg People in cities, towns and villages received their drinking water, as well as water to bathe and wash, via aqueducts or springs in the vicinity. Up until the nineteenth, fountains had to be higher and closer to a water source, including aqueducts and reservoirs, in order to take advantage of gravity which fed the fountains. Fountains were an optimal source of water, and also served to adorn living areas and celebrate the designer. Roman fountains usually depicted imagery of animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks. During the Middle Ages, Muslim and Moorish garden designers included fountains in their designs to mimic the gardens of paradise. To demonstrate his prominence over nature, French King Louis XIV included fountains in the Garden of Versailles. Seventeen and 18 century Popes sought to exalt their positions by including decorative baroque-style fountains at the point where restored Roman aqueducts arrived into the city.

The end of the 19th century saw the increase in usage of indoor plumbing to supply drinking water, so urban fountains were relegated to strictly decorative elements. The introduction of unique water effects and the recycling of water were 2 things made possible by swapping gravity with mechanical pumps.

Nowadays, fountains adorn public spaces and are used to recognize individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs.

The Circulation of Water Fountain Engineering Knowledge in Europe

Circulation Water Fountain Engineering Knowledge Europe 007286211.jpg The Circulation of Water Fountain Engineering Knowledge in Europe Instrumental to the development of scientific technology were the printed papers and illustrated publications of the day. They were also the main method of transferring practical hydraulic facts and fountain design ideas all through Europe. In the later part of the 1500's, a French water fountain designer (whose name has been lost) was the internationally recognized hydraulics pioneer. With imperial mandates in Brussels, London and Germany, he began his work in Italy, developing know-how in garden design and grottoes with built-in and imaginative water hydraulics. “The Principles of Moving Forces”, a publication that became the fundamental text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering, was written by him towards the end of his life in France. Modernizing principal hydraulic discoveries of classical antiquity, the book also highlights contemporary hydraulic technologies. As a mechanized means to push water, Archimedes made the water screw, fundamental among key hydraulic breakthroughs. Sunlight heating liquid in a couple of containers concealed in a room next to an ornamental water feature was displayed in one illustration. The end result: the water feature is triggered by the hot water expanding and rising up the piping. Models for pumps, water wheels, water features and outdoor ponds are also mentioned in the book.
The Effect of the Norman Conquest on Anglo-Saxon Gardens The arrival of the Normans in the second half of the eleventh century greatly transformed The Anglo-Saxon ways of living.The talent of the Normans exceeded the Anglo-Saxons' in design and agriculture at the time of the conquest.... read more


Historic Crete & The Minoans: Outdoor Fountains On the Greek island of Crete, digs have unearthed channels of numerous varieties.In combination with supplying water, they dispersed water which accumulated from storms or waste.... read more


The Wide Array of Outdoor Fountains Is it possible for you to convert your yard into a haven of serenity?Add a sense of tranquility to your garden with an exterior fountain and avail yourself of all the positive effects of a water feature.... read more


The History of Fountains Pope Nicholas V, himself a well educated man, governed the Roman Catholic Church from 1397 to 1455 during which time he commissioned many translations of old classic Greek texts into Latin.... read more


Contemporary Statuary in Early Greece Though many sculptors were remunerated by the temples to embellish the elaborate columns and archways with renderings of the gods of old, as the period came to a close, it became more common for sculptors to represent common people as well mainly because many of Greeks had started to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred.... read more


The Grace of Simple Garden Decor: The Garden Fountain Having a pond near your outdoor water fountain is no longer required because they can now be placed on a wall close by.Excavating, installing and cleaning a nearby pond are no longer a necessity.... read more